Structural Family Therapy: 5 Techniques and Applications

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In the intricate web of family dynamics, where each thread represents a unique individual, Structural Family Therapy stands as a powerful and transformative approach.

Developed by renowned therapist Salvador Minuchin, this method views families as complex systems with their own patterns, hierarchies, and boundaries.

By recognizing and reshaping these structural elements, this therapy empowers families to address conflicts, improve communication, and cultivate healthier relationships.

Key Principles of Structural Family Therapy

Structural Family Therapy

Structural family therapy is a therapeutic approach that focuses on understanding and reorganizing the structure and dynamics of a family unit.

This form of family therapy emphasizes the importance of creating clear boundaries, hierarchies, and roles within the family system in order to foster healthier relationships among family members.

By addressing underlying issues in the family structure, therapists are better equipped to facilitate positive changes and promote emotional well-being for all individuals involved.

Family Structures

In structural family therapy, understanding the family structure is essential to address the difficulties experienced by family members.

Family structure refers to the arrangement of relationships and patterns of interactions among family members. It provides a framework within which family members understand their roles and responsibilities, and it influences the family’s ability to cope with stressors and challenges.

By examining the family structure, therapists can identify the root causes of problems and help families develop more adaptive and functional ways of relating to one another.


Hierarchies play a crucial role in maintaining stability within families. They represent the power dynamics and patterns of authority within the family system.

In a healthy family hierarchy, parents and caregivers hold the primary decision-making authority and provide the necessary guidance and support for their children.

However, when hierarchies become unbalanced or disrupted, it can lead to dysfunctional family dynamics, such as a child assuming an inappropriate level of responsibility or parents becoming overly permissive.

Structural family therapists work to realign the hierarchies within families, ensuring that authority is distributed appropriately.


Boundaries, in the context of structural family therapy, refer to the limits and rules that define interactions between family members.

They can be either clear or diffuse, and they help establish individuals’ autonomy within the family system.

Clear BoundariesDiffuse Boundaries
Families often demonstrate mutual respect, clear communication, and appropriate levels of emotional involvement.Families may experience conflict, confusion, and enmeshment, where individual autonomy is compromised.

Structural family therapists help families to establish and maintain appropriate boundaries to foster a healthier family environment.


Family Structural Theory

Within the larger family system, there are often smaller subsystems characterized by specific rolesrelationships, and functions.

Subsystems can include parents, siblings, or other extended family members, and they may be organized based on factors such as age, gender, and level of authority. These subsystems are essential for maintaining balance and stability within the family, providing opportunities for both closeness and separation.

Structural family therapy aims to identify and adjust any dysfunctional subsystems within the family, promoting healthier interactions and more adaptive roles for each family member.

5 Techniques in Practice

Structural Family Therapy (SFT) employs a range of techniques to understand and address family dynamics and conflicts.

This section aims to understand the transformative techniques, such as family mapping and restructuring, in the practice of Structural Family Therapy.

1. Family Mapping

Family mapping is a crucial technique in Structural Family Therapy (SFT) that enables therapists to better understand the relational dynamics within a family system.

This method involves visually representing the family structure, including relationships, roles, and boundaries, allowing both the therapist and the family to gain insights into the patterns and interactions that shape their relationships.

To create a family map, the therapist first gathers information about each family member, such as their age, gender, occupation, and relationship with others within the family.

This information is then used to create a visual representation that highlights power dynamics, coalitions, and emotional attachments, ultimately helping the therapist to identify areas where intervention may be needed.

One key aspect of family mapping is the hierarchical organization within the family, which is essential for understanding subsystems and boundaries.

The depiction of these elements allows for effective interventions by the therapist aimed at increasing flexibility and balance within the family system.

2. Joining

Structural Family Therapy Interventions

Joining refers to the therapeutic process of establishing rapport and building a collaborative alliance with each family member. This allows the therapist to facilitate communication and collaboration within the family effectively.

Joining involves adapting to the family’s communication style, cultural background, and relational dynamics. The therapist may adjust their language, tone, and approach to better resonate with each family member and facilitate effective communication.

By adapting to the family’s unique context, the therapist enhances their ability to connect with family members and address therapeutic goals.

3. Unbalancing

Unbalancing involves deliberately disrupting the established equilibrium within the family system by aligning with one family member or subgroup against another.

The therapist may side with a less dominant or marginalized family member to challenge the authority of a more dominant or controlling individual.

Through unbalancing, the therapist encourages individual family members to differentiate themselves from rigid family roles and expectations. By challenging entrenched patterns of interaction, unbalancing creates space for individuals to express their thoughts, feelings, and needs more authentically.

This process promotes greater autonomy, self-awareness, and assertiveness within the family.

4. Boundary-making

In the boundary-making technique, the therapist works on clarifying the limits and roles within the family, fostering healthier connections, and preventing enmeshment or disconnection among family members.

Common boundary challenges addressed in SFT include parental overinvolvement in children’s lives, triangulation (involving a third party in conflicts), and coalitions (alignments between family members against others).

Therapists help families recognize and address these challenges to restore balance and harmony in the family system.

By addressing boundary disturbances and promoting clearer, more adaptive boundaries, SFT aims to alleviate relational conflicts and improve the overall well-being of family members.

5. Restructuring

Restructuring is another fundamental technique in SFT, focused on altering the family’s organization to enhance its overall functioning.

This process involves modifying emotions, rules, roles, and hierarchy within the family system to create a healthier and more adaptive environment.

Through restructuring, SFT aims to promote healthier interactions and improve communication, cooperation, and problem-solving within the family system, ultimately leading to a more harmonious and well-functioning environment.

Comparison to Other Therapy Models

Structural Family Therapy

Understanding Structural Family Therapy (SFT) often involves comparing it to other family therapy models, as each approach brings its own principles and techniques to the therapeutic landscape.

Examining how SFT differs from models like Strategic Family Therapy, Functional Family Therapy, or Systemic Family Therapy allows a deeper understanding of its unique principles and techniques.

Strategic Family Therapy

Structural Family TherapyStrategic Family Therapy
It aims to reorganize the family structure itself, examining the power dynamics and communication patterns to address the root causes of a problem.It is an intervention-based approach that focuses on specific problems within family dynamics.
It works to reshape the family’s underlying structure.Therapists often set specific goals and employ various tactics to create change within the family system.

Functional Family Therapy

Structural Family TherapyFunctional Family Therapy (FFT)
This approach directly targets the family structure and relationships, with the belief that individual behavior will change as a result.This approach strongly emphasizes behavioral change, aiming to improve communication, problem-solving skills, and parent-child relationships. 

Systemic Family Therapy

Structural Family TherapySystemic Family Therapy
It specifically focuses on internal family organization, power dynamics, and communication patterns.It examines the broader network of relationships and interactions both within the family and external to the family system.

This can include social, cultural, and environmental factors.


Structural Family Therapy (SFT) offers several benefits for individuals and families seeking therapeutic support.

First and foremost, SFT helps families identify dysfunctional patterns of interaction and communication that contribute to relational problems and symptomatic behavior. By understanding how these patterns are maintained within the family system, individuals can work towards positive change.

Another benefit of SFT is its emphasis on strengthening parental leadership and clarifying parent-child roles. Therapists encourage parents to take on leadership roles within the family and assert appropriate authority, creating a more stable and secure environment for children to thrive.

Additionally, SFT addresses multigenerational patterns and dynamics, helping families break free from negative cycles and create a more positive family legacy.

Finally, through SFT, families learn effective communication skills that promote understanding, empathy, and collaboration. By enhancing communication within the family, individuals can express their needs and concerns more openly and resolve conflicts constructively.

Applying SFT to Different Family Types

Structural Family Therapy

Structural Family Therapy (SFT) is a versatile and adaptable framework that empowers therapists to address the needs of various family types, from single-parent to blended families.

This section will help to understand the profound art of applying SFT to different family types.

Blended Families

Applying Structural Family Therapy (SFT) can help address the unique challenges that arise in blended families, where parents have children from previous relationships.

These may include boundary issues, communication difficulties, and loyalty conflicts.

A therapist using SFT aims to strengthen the hierarchy within the family system, ensuring that parents exhibit a united front in decision-making and discipline challenges.

During SFT sessions, therapists may engage the entire family and work to redefine roles and boundaries between the members.

Therapists can help create harmony within the blended family by encouraging open communication and negotiation.

Realignment of the family subsystems can allow step-parents and step-siblings to establish and maintain healthy relationships.

Furthermore, SFT can also assist in validating the individual experiences of each family member, acknowledging their unique feelings and perspectives in the context of the blended family.

Single-Parent Families

For single-parent families, SFT can serve as an effective therapy approach in addressing challenges such as role confusionoverburdened parents, and lack of emotional support.

One of the primary goals of SFT in this context is to help single parents establish clear boundaries between themselves and their children, maintaining a strong parental role while avoiding the formation of a fused parent-child dyad.

SFT can also help single parents learn and practice effective communication skills with their children, fostering healthy, open dialogues that form the basis for problem-solving and conflict resolution within the family unit.

In addition, therapists may also work with the extended family, including grandparents or other relatives, to identify patterns and dynamics that could be contributing to challenges within the single-parent family.

Lastly, by acknowledging the emotional experiences of both the parent and child and helping the family recognize and address their needs and concerns, SFT can be instrumental in empowering single-parent families to adapt and thrive in their unique family structure.

Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the main goals of this therapy?

Structural Family Therapy (SFT) aims to identify and modify the patterns and interactions within a family system.

The primary objectives include:

  • Strengthening the family structure.
  • Improving communication.
  • Creating healthy boundaries.
  • Addressing any maladaptive patterns or behaviors.

By enhancing the family’s ability to adapt and function more effectively, SFT facilitates a more harmonious and supportive environment for individual growth and development.

What is the therapist’s role?

The therapist in Structural Family Therapy serves as an active agent of change. They observe and assess the family dynamics to identify the underlying patterns and structures.

The therapist then intervenes and actively participates in the therapy process, guiding the family members to redefine their roles, establish appropriate boundaries, and improve communication.

They may use various techniques to facilitate these changes, including role-playingreframing, and unbalancing.

Using online directories such as Find-a-Therapist you can find a licensed and specialized therapist for your family.

How does unbalancing work?

Unbalancing is an SFT technique that involves the therapist shifting alliances or aligning themself with one family member or sub-group to disrupt established patterns of interaction.

This approach creates a temporary imbalance within the family system, prompting family members to adjust and adapt their behaviors, roles, and power dynamics.

Once the desired changes have been made, the therapist reestablishes a balanced alliance with all family members to support a healthier family structure.

How is the assessment process conducted?

The assessment process in Structural Family Therapy typically involves a series of sessions during which the therapist observes and interacts with the family.

They gather information about the family’s history, dynamics, and relationships to pinpoint problematic patterns, structures, and behaviors.

The therapist may use various assessment tools, such as genograms, to visualize the family structure and track generational patterns.

The information gathered during the assessment phase helps the therapist develop a treatment plan tailored to the family’s unique needs.

What are the limitations?

While Structural Family Therapy has proven effective in addressing various issues, it has some limitations.

SFT may not be suitable for all families, especially those with members who are resistant to change or are unwilling to engage in the therapy process actively.

Additionally, SFT may not adequately address the unique needs of individuals with severe mental health issues or psychological disorders that require more specialized treatment approaches.


Colapinto, J. (2019). Structural family therapy. Encyclopedia of couple and family therapy, 2820-2828. Link.

Minuchin, S. (2018). Structural family therapy. In Families and family therapy (pp. 1-11). Routledge. Link.

Navarre, S. E. (1998). Salvador Minuchin’s structural family therapy and its application to multicultural family systems. Issues in Mental Health Nursing19(6), 557-570. Link.

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About the author

Eliana Galindo
Eliana is a dedicated psychologist from Colombia who has gained extensive experience and made significant contributions in child development, clinical psychology, and rehabilitation psychology.Her work as a rehabilitation psychologist with disabled children has been transformative and compassionate. In the child development field, she creates nurturing environments through assessments, interventions, and collaboration with families.In clinical psychology, she supports individuals overcoming mental health challenges with empathy and evidence-based approaches. Inspired by her experiences, Eliana is motivated to write about mental health, aiming to raise awareness and advocate for a compassionate and inclusive approach to well-being.

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