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Polyvagal Therapy: Unveiling the Power of the Vagus Nerve

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Polyvagal therapy is an innovative approach to psychotherapy that draws on Stephen Porges’ Polyvagal Theory, which emphasizes the role of the autonomic nervous system in emotional regulation and social behavior.

According to this theory, the vagus nerve, which is a key part of the autonomic nervous system, influences one’s capacity for social engagement and stress response.

The therapy built upon this framework seeks to engage the body’s nervous system to foster a state of safety, where healing from trauma and emotional dysregulation can occur.

Foundations of Polyvagal Theory


The Polyvagal Theory offers a refined understanding of the autonomic nervous system, emphasizing the role of the vagus nerve.

It presents an evolutionary framework that elucidates the hierarchy of autonomic responses, vital for emotional regulation and social behavior.

Understanding the Autonomic Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates involuntary physiological functions and is composed of two primary components: the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

Sympathetic Nervous SystemParasympathetic Nervous System
Prepares the body for action through the “fight or flight” responsePrimarily mediated by the vagus nerve, is often associated with “rest and digest” functions.

Polyvagal Theory introduces a nuanced view that distinguishes two branches of the parasympathetic system, which are involved in different autonomic states.

Evolutionary Aspects and the Hierarchy of Responses

The vagus nerve, a key element of the parasympathetic system, is instrumental in the hierarchy of responses highlighted in Polyvagal Theory which posits that autonomic responses follow an evolutionary hierarchy:

  1. Ventral vagal – newest, linked to social communication and self-soothing.
  2. Sympathetic – middle, tied to mobilization actions.
  3. Dorsal vagal – oldest, associated with shutdown or freeze behaviors.

This sequence reflects the evolutionary development of the autonomic nervous system and suggests that more evolved structures can inhibit or regulate primal ones.

Understanding how these systems interact is crucial for recognizing how individuals transition through different autonomic states in response to stress or threats.

Impact on Mental and Physical Health

Polyvagal Theory’s impact on health extends beyond the mind to include a range of bodily functions that are regulated through the nervous system.



Polyvagal Theory has profound implications for treating trauma. It introduces the concept of neuroception, which is how the nervous system perceives threats and subsequently mobilizes or immobilizes the body in response.

The theory delineates between two primary states: the ventral vagal state, associated with safety and social engagement, and the dorsal vagal state, often linked to immobilization or “shutdown” responses typical in traumatic experiences.

Trauma therapists use this understanding to help their clients shift from states of hyperarousal or dissociation to states of safety and connection.

By recognizing the client’s physiological state, therapists can guide them through exercises that promote co-regulation—adjusting their autonomic state through the therapeutic relationship.

Anxiety, Depression, and Stress Management

Polyvagal therapy provides insight into the physiological underpinnings of mental health conditions like anxiety and depression.

It posits that a well-regulated nervous system can enhance resilience and stress management.

By adjusting the neuronal pathways linked to the fight or flight response, individuals may experience reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression, fostering a state of calmness and safety.

Heart Rate and Vagal Tone

Vagal tone, measured by heart rate variability, is a biomarker for the ability to handle stress adaptively.

Polyvagal therapy aims to enhance vagal tone, thus improving parasympathetic signals that slow the heart rate and promote relaxation.

These physiological changes can signal the body to mobilize or “numb,” and polyvagal therapy attempts to guide individuals into a more balanced, ventral vagal state.

Digestion, Wellness, and the Mind-Body Connection

The digestive system is often called the “second brain” due to its rich innervation.

Polyvagal therapy can impact digestion, supporting overall wellness through its influence on parasympathetic signals that govern rest and digestion functions. 

Through fostering a harmonious connection between the mind and body, individuals may see improvements in physiological and psychological states influencing conditions like eating disorders.

6 Polyvagal Exercises and Techniques


Polyvagal exercises and techniques aim to activate the parasympathetic nervous system to enhance vagal tone, which is crucial for managing stress and improving overall well-being.

These methods leverage the body’s natural mechanisms to foster a state of relaxation and safety.

1. Deep Breathing

Regularly practicing deep breathing exercises can influence the vagal tone positively, reducing stress and enhancing relaxation.

For instance, techniques such as the ‘diaphragmatic breathing’ or ‘4-7-8 method’ directly stimulate the vagus nerve, prompting a relaxation response.

2. Meditation

Mindfulness meditation practices are linked to improved emotional regulation and stress reduction. They often incorporate focused breath work to calm the mind and body, serving as effective tools for grounding and centering.

3. Yoga

Yoga incorporates postures, breathing techniques, and meditation to improve mental and physical performance.

Specific yoga sequences can be designed to activate the parasympathetic nervous system, which may enhance vagal tone and reduce stress.

4. Somatic Experiencing

This body-oriented therapeutic approach helps relieve symptoms of trauma and stress by focusing on bodily sensations.

It invites gentle, mindful movements to release the tension held in the body, thereby helping to regulate the nervous system.

5. Connection Exercises

Simple social engagement activities, like maintaining eye contact and listening exercises, can activate the social engagement system, an aspect of the polyvagal theory.

6. Cold Exposure

Brief cold showers or splashing cold water on the face can also stimulate the vagus nerve, potentially increasing vagal tone and reducing stress.

Integrating Polyvagal Theory into Daily Life

Participating in workshops

Rooted in neuroscience, Polyvagal Theory provides practical strategies for translating understanding into tangible benefits in personal lives.

Strategies for Building Safety and Trust in Relationships

  • Recognizing Body Signals: Pay attention to physiological cues that indicate feelings of comfort or danger.
  • Active Listening: Employ reflective listening to validate others’ experiences, fostering connection and co-regulation.

Leveraging Technology: Apps and Tools

  • Guided Meditation Apps: These can provide structured exercises to calm the fight-or-flight response.
  • Heart Rate Variability Monitors: Devices that measure HRV assist in self-awareness of one’s autonomous state, promoting wellness.

Creating Supportive Communities and Networks

  • Local and Online Events: Participating in workshops and seminars can provide education and foster communal connections.

Benefits of Polyvagal Therapy

Polyvagal Therapy offers several benefits that cater to different aspects of psychological and physiological health. Some benefits include:

Self-regulationIndividuals learn to understand and manage their physiological responses to stress.
Autonomic FlexibilityEnhanced ability for the nervous system to respond adaptively to stressors, leading to increased resilience.
Social ConnectionInsights from Polyvagal Theory aid in improving social engagement and forming stronger interpersonal relationships.
Mind-body IntegrationUtilization of the body’s physiological states can support traditional mind-body practices for comprehensive wellness.

By employing the principles of Polyvagal Theory, therapy can be tailored to assist with emotional, social, and psychophysiological challenges.

Criticism of Polyvagal Therapy

While polyvagal therapy has been adopted by many practitioners for its innovative approach to trauma and emotional regulation, it has also faced significant criticism:

Scientifically QuestionableSome experts maintain skepticism toward the polyvagal theory underpinning the therapy, arguing that its scientific basis is not firmly established.

They contend that the evidence supporting the theory is not strong enough to consider it a reliable framework for mental health treatment.
Lack of Empirical SupportCritics point out a shortage of large-scale, peer-reviewed studies that conclusively prove the efficacy of polyvagal interventions.

The need for more rigorous research is stressed to determine the therapy’s effectiveness compared to more traditional therapeutic approaches.
Overemphasis on PhysiologyThere is a concern that attributing complex psychological phenomena solely to physiological states, as polyvagal therapy does, may oversimplify the understanding of mental health issues.

This could potentially overlook the role of cognitive and environmental factors in emotional regulation.

Finding a Therapist Trained in the Application of the Polyvagal Theory


When seeking a polyvagal therapist, individuals should start by determining the specific needs and goals for their therapy. 

You should seek professionals who are trained in the application of the polyvagal theory and its principles. For instance, Healing Well Counseling or Inward Counselling are two websites where you can find polyvagal-informed therapy online.

Additionally, you can utilize online directories of mental health professionals such as and filter for those who specialize in polyvagal therapy like polyvagal-informed therapists.

Frequently Asked Questions

How do polyvagal therapy techniques enhance wellness?

Polyvagal therapy techniques are designed to regulate the autonomic nervous system.

By activating the parasympathetic ‘rest and digest’ state, they help reduce symptoms of stress and anxiety, fostering a sense of safety and calm.

What training is required for professionals to administer polyvagal therapy?

Professionals typically undergo specialized training to incorporate polyvagal principles into their practice.

Therapists may integrate it into treatment approaches for trauma, stress, and anxiety disorders, adapting their therapy strategies based on a polyvagal-informed perspective.

What are the common misconceptions about the polyvagal theory?

A common misconception is that polyvagal theory is a therapy in itself. In reality, it is a theoretical framework that informs therapeutic practices and interventions. It does not constitute a standalone treatment modality.


Ryland, S., Johnson, L. N., & Bernards, J. C. (2022). Honoring protective responses: reframing resistance in therapy using polyvagal theory. Contemporary Family Therapy44(3), 267-275. Link.

Sullivan, M. B., Erb, M., Schmalzl, L., Moonaz, S., Noggle Taylor, J., & Porges, S. W. (2018). Yoga therapy and polyvagal theory: The convergence of traditional wisdom and contemporary neuroscience for self-regulation and resilience. Frontiers in human neuroscience12, 329370. Link.

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About the author

Eliana Galindo
Eliana is a dedicated psychologist from Colombia who has gained extensive experience and made significant contributions in child development, clinical psychology, and rehabilitation psychology. Her work as a rehabilitation psychologist with disabled children has been transformative and compassionate. In the child development field, she creates nurturing environments through assessments, interventions, and collaboration with families. In clinical psychology, she supports individuals overcoming mental health challenges with empathy and evidence-based approaches. Inspired by her experiences, Eliana is motivated to write about mental health, aiming to raise awareness and advocate for a compassionate and inclusive approach to well-being.

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