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Existential Therapy: A Guide to Embracing Life’s Challenges

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Existential therapy, a form of psychotherapy, draws from the philosophies of existentialism to address and explore the meaning of human existence.

Rooted in existential philosophy, this therapeutic approach emphasizes the exploration of an individual’s life experienceschoices, and values.

By adopting a neutral yet knowledgeable perspective, existential therapy supports individuals in their journey to confront and understand life’s inherent challenges, uncertainties, and paradoxes.

Fundamental Concepts

Existential Therapy

Central to existential therapy is the belief that an individual’s self-awareness forms the foundation for personal growth and development.

As a result, this therapeutic approach encourages individuals to examine their thoughts, emotions, and actions critically and authentically.

Existential therapy aims to help individuals embark on a journey toward greater self-understanding, ultimately leading to a more genuine, fulfilling life.

Although existential psychotherapy may initially appear complex, its fundamental principles focus on client autonomy, personal responsibility, and the establishment of authentic connections with others.

Freedom and Responsibility

Existential therapy focuses on the notion of freedom and responsibility.

It emphasizes that individuals have the freedom to make choices in their lives and, coupled with the concept of authenticity, people must take responsibility for their actions, choices, and decisions.

This concept encourages individuals to be aware of their potential to shape their lives and assume responsibility for the consequences of their actions.

Search for Meaning

key aspect of existential therapy is the search for meaning in one’s life.

The therapy process aims to help individuals explore their values and beliefs, challenging them to recognize the importance of finding purpose and creating a meaningful existence.

Through the therapeutic relationship, clients can examine their life choices and gain a deeper understanding of themselves while developing meaning through their experiences.

Existential Givens

Existential Theory Counseling

Existential givens are the inherent conditions of human existence which all individuals face regardless of their circumstances.

Some of the existential givens include:

  • The inevitability of death
  • The experience of freedom and responsibility
  • The search for meaning
  • The inherent loneliness of human existence

Existential therapy addresses these givens, assisting clients in recognizing and accepting them while using them as a platform for growth and self-discovery.

Existential Anxiety

Existential anxiety refers to the inner tension that arises from realizing one’s freedom and responsibility.

This form of anxiety is different from other types of anxiety, as it is a natural consequence of human existence and the awareness of one’s own mortality.

Facing existential anxiety in therapy allows clients to confront the dilemmas that emerge from their inherent freedom and responsibility, thereby fostering personal growth and the development of an authentic sense of self.

Therapy Interventions

Existential Therapy Techniques

Existential therapy interventions focus on promoting self-awareness, exploration of personal values, and identification of life meaning.

Some key elements of these interventions include:

ReflectionEncouraging individuals to deeply examine their experiences, feelings, and thoughts in order to better comprehend their sense of self and their place in the world.
AuthenticityAssisting individuals in discovering their most genuine selves, unearthing hidden aspects of their personality, and embracing their true nature.
ResponsibilityEmphasizing the importance of taking responsibility for one’s beliefs, values, and actions in the pursuit of a fulfilling life.
ConnectionExploring the importance of relationships and connections with others while also recognizing individual needs for solitude and personal space.
Existential ChallengesAddressing fundamental life concerns, such as death, freedom, isolation, and meaninglessness, and assisting individuals in confronting and working through these existential issues.
Confrontation of Anxiety and DespairTherapists support clients in facing their existential fears and anxieties, helping them develop coping strategies and resilience in the face of existential challenges.

Ultimately, interventions in existential therapy seek to enhance the individual’s understanding of their own life path and choices, backed by the belief that personal growth emerges from a deeper exploration of oneself and the world.


Unlike traditional therapies, existential therapy doesn’t focus solely on symptom alleviation but delves into the core of what it means to be human.

As a result, its applications extend far beyond addressing mental health disorders; they encompass a wide spectrum of human experiences and challenges.

Relationships and Love

Existential Therapy

Existential therapy can help individuals navigate the complexities of relationships and love.

It encourages clients to examine their choices, understand their freedom, and accept responsibility for their actions.

This therapeutic approach can empower individuals to develop authentic connections with others by embracing vulnerability and embracing their capacity for love.

Isolation and Alienation

Facing feelings of isolation and alienation is an integral part of the existential therapy process.

Clients are encouraged to explore their feelings of loneliness and discover the meaning and purpose in their lives despite these feelings.

Through this understanding, individuals can work to overcome alienation and build meaningful connections with others.

Depression and Anxiety

Existential therapy can be beneficial for individuals struggling with depression and anxiety.

By exploring the root causes of these mental health challenges, the therapy focuses on helping clients find meaning in their lives and confront the uncertainties of existence.

Ultimately, this can lead to a reduction in symptoms and improved overall well-being.

Addiction and Recovery

In addiction and recovery, existential therapy can play a crucial role by addressing the underlying existential issues that may have contributed to the development of addiction.

Clients are encouraged to explore the choices they have made, accept responsibility for their actions, and seek meaning and purpose in their lives.

This process can empower individuals to take control of their recovery and make positive changes to overcome addiction.


Existential Therapy

Existential therapy offers a range of benefits for individuals seeking to explore the fundamental concerns of human existence and develop a deeper understanding of themselves and their lives.

In this section, we’ll highlight some of these benefits.

Increased Self-Awareness

Existential therapy encourages individuals to explore their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors about existential themes such as freedom, responsibility, and meaning.

Through this process of self-exploration, individuals can develop greater self-awareness and insight into their inner experiences and motivations.

Enhanced Personal Growth

This therapy fosters personal growth and self-discovery by encouraging individuals to confront existential challenges and uncertainties in their lives.

By engaging with existential questions and exploring their values, beliefs, and aspirations, individuals can cultivate a deeper sense of authenticity, purpose, and fulfillment.

Greater Emotional Resilience

This approach helps clients develop resilience in the face of existential anxieties and uncertainties.

By acknowledging and confronting existential fears such as death, meaninglessness, and isolation, clients can learn to tolerate ambiguity, cope with existential anxiety, and navigate life’s challenges with greater emotional strength and resilience.

Increased Sense of Purpose

Existential therapy helps individuals clarify their values, goals, and priorities, leading to a greater sense of purpose and direction in life.

By exploring existential themes such as meaning and authenticity, individuals can identify meaningful pursuits and aspirations that align with their true selves.

Empowerment and Agency

Existential therapy empowers individuals to take ownership of their lives and make conscious choices that reflect their values and aspirations.

By accepting personal responsibility and embracing their capacity for self-determination, individuals can cultivate a sense of agency and empowerment in shaping their existence.

Challenges and Criticism

Existential Therapy Techniques

Existential therapy explores individuals’ experiences and emotions, such as anxiety, fear, guilt, violence, anger, and despair, in order to understand their life’s meaning and purpose.

Despite the potential benefits offered by existential therapy, it is not without its challenges and criticisms.

Complex Emotions

One challenge in applying existential therapy is interpreting and working with complex emotions.

Individuals often experience deep-rooted feelings of anxiety and fear, which may stem from the realization of their mortality or the search for meaning in their lives.

Therapists must be skilled in addressing these emotions and guiding clients through the process of self-discovery without imposing their own values and beliefs on the client.

Lack of Empirical Evidence

Another criticism of existential therapy is the focus on individual experiences and subjective realities. This can lead to a lack of empirical evidence supporting the efficacy of the therapy.

Due to its emphasis on self-exploration and introspection, existential therapy is sometimes criticized for being too abstract and difficult to apply in a structured clinical setting.

Critics argue that other therapeutic approaches, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, may be more practical and effective in addressing specific mental health issues.


Some individuals may also find the existential themes explored in therapy to be distressing, leading to increased feelings of guilt, anger, or despair. 

These negative emotions can be counterproductive to the therapeutic process, making it challenging for clients to fully engage with and benefit from the therapy.

balance must be struck between raising existential concerns while not overwhelming clients emotionally.

How Can I Find an Existential Therapist

Finding an existential therapist near you may involve conducting some research.

Start by searching online directories such as where you can find therapists like Lincoln Stoller, or James Norwood who have experience in existential therapy.

Each therapist listed in this directory has a profile that provides information about their credentials, areas of expertise, treatment approach, experience, and availability. You can review therapist profiles to learn more about their background and determine if they might be a good fit for your needs.

Additionally, you can ask for recommendations or read online reviews to help you find a therapist who can meet your unique therapeutic needs.

Final Thoughts

In summary, existential therapy focuses on helping individuals find meaning and purpose in their lives.

As a therapeutic approach, it aims to address personal challenges and existential concerns by exploring the individual’s relational world, values, and beliefs. By doing so, existential therapy can offer a unique and effective treatment for various psychological issues.

Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the key principles of existential therapy?

Existential therapy is based on the belief that human beings have the capacity for self-awareness and the freedom to make choices, even amidst challenging life circumstances.

This type of therapy focuses on helping individuals examine their lives, explore their values, and come to terms with their emotions to find meaning and purpose.

Key principles of existential therapy include authenticity, autonomy, personal responsibility, and the search for meaning in life.

While this therapeutic approach acknowledges the inevitability of suffering, it encourages clients to find ways to live a more fulfilling life.

How do existential therapists apply techniques in sessions?

Existential therapists work with their clients in a collaborative and non-directive manner, engaging them in a process of self-exploration and discovery.

They often use techniques such as Socratic questioning, which encourages clients to examine their beliefs and values.

Through these conversations, the therapist helps clients identify patterns of thought and behavior that may limit their growth and personal fulfillment.

Other techniques may include journaling, self-reflection exercises, and experiential activities designed to promote self-awareness and meaning-making.

How is existential therapy different from humanistic therapy?

Although existential therapy and humanistic therapy share some similarities, such as a focus on personal growth and the importance of the therapeutic relationship, they differ in their underlying philosophical perspectives.

Existential therapy emphasizes the human condition, with its struggles, anxieties, and the search for meaning in life.

On the other hand, humanistic therapy emphasizes the individual’s inherent tendency towards growth, self-actualization, and the pursuit of positive psychological experiences.

What kind of training do existential therapists undergo?

Existential therapists typically undergo extensive training in psychology, counseling, or other mental health disciplines, often at the graduate level.

They may have a master’s or doctoral degree in counseling, psychology, or social work.

Additionally, specialized training in existential therapy is required, which may involve attending workshops, participating in mentorship relationships, and engaging in continuous personal and professional development.

This training covers the theoretical foundations, therapy techniques, and ethical considerations unique to existential therapy.


Ruffin, J. E. (1984). The anxiety of meaninglessness. Journal of Counseling & Development63(1). Link.

Vos, J., Craig, M., & Cooper, M. (2015). Existential therapies: a meta-analysis of their effects on psychological outcomes. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology83(1), 115. Link.

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About the author

Eliana Galindo
Eliana is a dedicated psychologist from Colombia who has gained extensive experience and made significant contributions in child development, clinical psychology, and rehabilitation psychology.Her work as a rehabilitation psychologist with disabled children has been transformative and compassionate. In the child development field, she creates nurturing environments through assessments, interventions, and collaboration with families.In clinical psychology, she supports individuals overcoming mental health challenges with empathy and evidence-based approaches. Inspired by her experiences, Eliana is motivated to write about mental health, aiming to raise awareness and advocate for a compassionate and inclusive approach to well-being.

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