Neurofeedback Therapy: Enhancing Brain Function

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Neurofeedback therapy is based on the principle of self-regulation, which allows the brain to learn to function more efficiently by adjusting its own patterns of activity.

With the help of electroencephalography (EEG) technology, neurofeedback has been gaining prominence in the field of cognitive rehabilitation and mental health treatment.

The process involves monitoring the individual’s brainwaves while they engage in specific tasks or activities, and then providing them with visual or auditory feedback to help them modify their brain activity.

This feedback acts as a reward system, encouraging the brain to maintain or change particular patterns of activity for improved cognitive performance and overall mental well-being.

Understanding Neurofeedback Therapy


Neurofeedback therapy, also known as neurotherapy, is a type of biofeedback that utilizes real-time information about an individual’s brain activity to promote self-regulation of brain function.

Over the years, neurofeedback therapy has been utilized as an intervention for various psychological and neurological conditions, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, depression, and even recovery following a stroke.

Electroencephalography (EEG)

This non-invasive technique typically involves the use of electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor brain wave patterns and provide feedback to the individual.

The main objective of neurofeedback therapy is to help individuals learn how to modulate their brain function, which can ultimately lead to improved cognitiveemotional, and behavioral functioning.

During a therapy session, the subject’s brain activity is recorded using EEG sensors placed on the scalp.

These sensors measure the electrical activity of the brain, generating a real-time display of the subject’s brainwaves.

The therapist then uses this information to guide the individual through specific exercises designed to train their brain to modulate its own activity in a more adaptive manner.

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

An alternative to EEG, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), can also be utilized in neurofeedback therapy.

This technique focuses on measuring blood oxygen levels in the brain and providing feedback based on brain activation patterns.

Although fMRI offers higher spatial resolution compared to EEG, it is relatively less common in neurofeedback therapy due to its high cost and less user-friendly nature.

Brain Activity

The process of adjusting one’s own brain activity in response to feedback is a key aspect of neurofeedback therapy.

This biofeedback loop helps individuals gradually learn optimal brain activity patterns and gain better control over their cognitive performance.

For instance, if an individual’s brain shows signs of excessive activity in certain areas, they can be trained to reduce this activity, leading to improved focus and concentration levels.

Applications of Neurofeedback Therapy

Neurofeedback Therapy

Neurofeedback therapy is a non-invasive treatment method that involves training the brain to improve its function and performance.

It has been successfully applied to a wide range of conditions, including those related to mental health, cognitive performance, and neurological disorders.

In this section, we will discuss some of the primary applications of neurofeedback therapy in treating various conditions.

Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

One of the most well-researched applications of neurofeedback therapy is in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

This condition affects both children and adults, leading to difficulties in attention, impulse control, and hyperactivity.

Neurofeedback therapy has been shown to help improve focus and reduce impulsivity in individuals with ADHD, providing an alternative or supplement to traditional medication-based treatments.

Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety disorders can also be addressed using neurofeedback therapy.

Through the training process, patients learn to regulate their brain activity, which can ultimately result in reduced anxiety symptoms and improved overall emotional regulation.

In particular, neurofeedback has been found to be effective in treating conditions such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).


Epilepsy is another condition that has seen promising results from neurofeedback therapy.

Recurrent seizures characterize this neurological disorder and can greatly affect a person’s quality of life.

Neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy has been shown to help reduce the frequency and severity of seizures in some patients, providing an additional treatment option beyond medication and surgery.



Depression is a common mental health issue that impacts millions of people worldwide.

Neurofeedback therapy has been utilized to help alleviate symptoms of depression by training the brain to regulate its own activity and improve mood.

This treatment method presents a viable alternative or supplement to traditional therapies such as medication and psychotherapy.

Insomnia and Chronic Pain

Neurofeedback therapy has also been applied to the treatment of insomnia and chronic pain.

By learning to control brain activity, patients can potentially improve their sleep patterns and better manage their pain levels.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Finally, neurofeedback therapy has been explored as a potential treatment for autism spectrum disorder. This developmental disorder affects social, communication, and cognitive abilities.

While more research is needed, preliminary findings suggest that neurofeedback therapy may help improve some symptoms of autism, such as attention and social skills.

Working Mechanism of Neurofeedback Therapy

Neurofeedback therapy is a treatment that allows individuals to receive real-time information about their brain activity. This information is usually presented through audio or visual feedback.

The therapy aims to help people learn how to modulate their brainwaves to achieve a more balanced and optimal mental state.

Understanding the working mechanism of neurofeedback therapy requires a brief overview of the different types of brainwaves and how they are measured.

Brainwave Frequencies

Brainwave Frequencies

During a neurofeedback session, electrodes are placed on the person’s scalp to measure the electrical activity produced by the brain.

These measurements are then represented in the form of a graph with distinct bands. Similar to musical notes, there are different brainwave frequencies, including alpha, beta, delta, theta, and gamma.

  • Alpha waves: Known for their role in relaxation.
  • Beta waves: Associated with focus and concentration.
  • Delta waves: Related to deep sleep.
  • Theta waves: Linked to meditation and creative states.
  • Gamma waves: The highest frequency and are connected to higher cognitive functions and peak mental performance.

Neurofeedback therapy works by providing individuals with real-time feedback on their current brainwave activity.

For example, if the goal of the therapy is to enhance relaxation, the feedback will help the person recognize and promote alpha wave activity.

Conversely, if the aim is to improve focus, the feedback will support the individual in increasing beta wave activity.

With consistent practice, individuals can learn to control and maintain their desired brainwave states consciously.

This allows them to manage their mental states more effectively, improving their cognitive performance, emotional regulation, and overall well-being.

Types of Neurofeedback Therapy

Neurofeedback therapy, a form of biofeedback, is a non-invasive process to train brain function using real-time data.

Several types of neurofeedback exist to cater to the varying requirements of individual patients.

These therapies use different methodologies and techniques to help patients achieve self-regulation and enhanced cognitive functioning.

Frequency/Power Neurofeedback

Frequency/Power Neurofeedback is a widely used method that focuses on training specific brainwave frequencies.

It aims to normalize brainwave patterns and decrease symptoms associated with various psychiatric and developmental disorders, such as ADHD and anxiety.

Brainwave frequencies include delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma, and their combinations are utilized in distinct neurofeedback treatment protocols.

Slow Cortical Potential Neurofeedback (SCP-NF)

Neurofeedback Therapy

Slow Cortical Potential Neurofeedback (SCP-NF) targets the slow cortical potentials (SCPs) of the brain, working with the negative and positive shifts in cortical excitability.

With proper training, patients can learn to control these shifts to improve their cognitive and emotional regulation.

Low-Energy Neurofeedback System (LENS)

Low-Energy Neurofeedback System (LENS) is another type of neurofeedback therapy that introduces a tiny electrical signal into the patient’s brain to facilitate healing.

Unlike traditional neurofeedback, which requires the user to actively engage in the process, LENS training is passive and only needs a few minutes per session, making it ideal for those who have difficulties concentrating or are easily fatigued.

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), although not a specific type of neurofeedback, is often used in combination with neurofeedback training.

It offers better spatial resolution and whole-brain coverage, overcoming some limitations of traditional EEG-based neurofeedback methods.

When utilized within neurofeedback therapy, fMRI provides enhanced insights into the brain’s functions and helps develop more effective treatment plans.

Live Z-Score Neurofeedback

Live Z-Score Neurofeedback is a newer approach that uses real-time data to calculate a Z-score, indicating how far the individual’s brain activity deviates from the norm.

The goal is to move the Z-score towards the average range, normalizing brain function and alleviating symptoms related to disorders like ADHD and anxiety.

This approach offers the advantage of dynamically adapting the treatment protocol based on the patient’s progress.

The Neurofeedback Therapy Session


Neurofeedback therapy sessions are typically held under the supervision of a knowledgeable therapist, ensuring the best possible outcomes for the client.

During the session, the therapist places a number of electrodes on the client’s scalp to record their brainwave activity.

This activity is then converted into real-time visual or auditory feedback, often represented through a video game or movie.

The client is encouraged to focus on the game or movie while their brainwaves are being monitored and assessed.

As the session progresses, they learn to control their brainwave activity, improving their overall cognitive function and emotional well-being.

The main objective is for the individual to be able to self-regulate and maintain a healthy brainwave pattern.

The length of each therapy session may vary, but a common duration would be approximately 30 minutes.

Some studies have shown improvements in clients’ mental health after only 10 sessions of therapy, while others might require up to 40 sessions for more significant results.

The number of sessions needed for each person depends on their unique condition and the objectives of their therapy.

Throughout the therapy, the therapist’s role is to guide the client and ensure they receive accurate and meaningful feedback, ultimately leading to sustained improvements in their mental health.

By adhering to a clearknowledgeable, and neutral approach, the therapist fosters a therapeutic environment where clients can feel confident and supported in reaching their goals.

Benefits and Effectiveness of Neurofeedback Therapy


Neurofeedback therapy is an alternative treatment often used to address a variety of conditions like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and can bring about several benefits to patients.

Research shows that this treatment can improve focus, attention, relaxation, and self-control, resulting in a significant enhancement of an individual’s quality of life.

Non-invasive Nature

One of the key advantages of neurofeedback therapy is its non-invasive nature compared to other treatments.

It allows patients to actively participate in their therapy process, providing them with better self-awareness and understanding of their brain functions.

This increased self-awareness may lead to an improvement in emotional regulation and reduce stress levels in patients.

Addressing ADHD

Neurofeedback therapy has been shown to be particularly effective in addressing ADHD in pediatric patients, with numerous studies indicating its efficacy in comparison to traditional treatments.

Through a series of training sessions, children learn to regulate their brain activity, which in turn helps them to better manage their impulsive behaviors and improve their attention span.

Life Quality and Self-efficacy

Another notable benefit of neurofeedback therapy is its potential to assist individuals undergoing cancer treatment.

Research has suggested that mobile neurofeedback therapy can positively impact the quality of life and self-efficacy in cancer patients, especially when age-related factors are taken into consideration.

Drawbacks and Considerations in Neurofeedback Therapy


Neurofeedback therapy is a promising non-invasive treatment for various psychological and behavioral problems.

However, it is essential to acknowledge its drawbacks and considerations to make informed decisions.

Time-consuming Nature

One significant concern of neurofeedback therapy is the time-consuming nature of the process.

For patients to experience noticeable improvements, they typically need to undergo multiple sessions, which can be time-intensive and costly.

Effectiveness for Substance Abuse

Another aspect to consider is the effectiveness of neurofeedback therapy for individuals with substance abuse issues, such as cocaine or alcohol addiction.

While some research suggests potential benefits, the results are still inconclusive, and further investigation is required to establish its efficacy for treating addiction.

Potential Interactions with Medications

Moreover, it is crucial to consider the potential interactions between neurofeedback therapy and medications prescribed for mental health conditions.

Some medications might alter the patient’s brainwaves, which could affect the outcomes of their neurofeedback training.

Consulting with healthcare professionals to discuss medication management during therapy is vital.

Side Effects

Despite being a non-invasive approach, some individuals may experience increased negative thoughts or discomfort during neurofeedback sessions.

It is essential to establish a clear communication channel with the therapist to address these concerns and adjust the treatment plan as necessary.

Final Thoughts


Neurofeedback therapy is a technique that aims to help individuals regulate their brain waves and achieve better emotion regulation.

By training individuals to control their brain wave patterns, this therapeutic approach has shown potential benefits in various conditions, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders, and epilepsy.

The method used in neurofeedback therapy is based on operant conditioning principles. Patients learn to modulate their brainwave patterns by receiving real-time feedback about their current brain activity.

This feedback allows them to make adjustments and, over time, improve their overall brain functioning. Some researchers have also drawn parallels between neurofeedback and meditation practices, as both involve developing self-awareness and control over one’s cognitive processes.

However, the effectiveness of neurofeedback therapy remains a topic of ongoing debate among researchers.

While the current evidence base is mixed, researchers must continue investigating the therapy’s effectiveness to determine the most reliable and beneficial applications of this technique in the future.

Frequently Asked Questions

How does neurofeedback therapy work?

Neurofeedback therapy, also known as EEG biofeedback, is a non-invasive brain training method that helps individuals enhance their brain functioning.

By using sensors placed on the scalp, the therapy measures the brain’s electrical activity and displays it in real time.

This information is then used to create personalized training programs that focus on specific brainwave patterns and frequencies.

Through consistent training sessions and feedback, the brain learns to self-regulate and improve functioning in areas such as focus, mood regulation, and cognitive performance.

Is neurofeedback therapy effective for anxiety and depression?

Yes, neurofeedback therapy has been shown to be effective for various mental health conditions, including anxiety and depression.

Studies have demonstrated that, when combined with other therapies, neurofeedback may help individuals reduce their symptoms, improve emotional regulation, and enhance overall well-being.

However, it’s important to note that individual results may vary, and it’s essential to work with a certified neurofeedback therapist to ensure the best possible outcome.

Can neurofeedback therapy be performed at home?

With the development of modern technology, there are home-based neurofeedback systems available on the market.

These systems allow users to manage their neurofeedback sessions in the comfort of their homes.

However, it is highly recommended to first consult with a certified neurofeedback therapist before attempting to use a home-based system.

They can provide guidance on setting up the equipment, designing tailored programs, and properly interpreting feedback data.

How can I find a certified neurofeedback therapist?

To find a certified neurofeedback therapist, you can search online professional directories or request a referral from your healthcare provider.

Professional organizations, such as the International Society for Neurofeedback & Research and the Biofeedback Certification International Alliance, also maintain directories of certified therapists, which can be helpful in finding a qualified practitioner nearby.

Does insurance typically cover the cost of neurofeedback therapy?

Insurance coverage for neurofeedback therapy varies among different providers and plans. Some policies may provide partial or full coverage, while others may not include neurofeedback as a covered service.

It’s essential to review your insurance policy or contact your insurance company to determine the specifics of your coverage before starting neurofeedback therapy.

If your insurance does not cover the cost, it may be possible to find sliding-scale fees or payment plans offered by some therapists, making it more accessible and affordable.

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About the author

Eliana Galindo
Eliana is a dedicated psychologist from Colombia who has gained extensive experience and made significant contributions in child development, clinical psychology, and rehabilitation psychology.Her work as a rehabilitation psychologist with disabled children has been transformative and compassionate. In the child development field, she creates nurturing environments through assessments, interventions, and collaboration with families.In clinical psychology, she supports individuals overcoming mental health challenges with empathy and evidence-based approaches. Inspired by her experiences, Eliana is motivated to write about mental health, aiming to raise awareness and advocate for a compassionate and inclusive approach to well-being.

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