Animal Assisted Therapy: Enhancing Mental Health

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Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is a therapeutic approach that incorporates animals into the treatment plans of individuals coping with various physical, emotional, and cognitive challenges.

This innovative method has been gaining recognition and support as research continues to explore its potential benefits on patients with diverse conditions like dementia, autism, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

The underlying premise of AAT is the unique bond formed between humans and animals, which can lead to a decrease in stress, anxiety, and depression, and an increase in social interaction and overall well-being.

Animal Assisted Therapy: An Overview

What is Animal Assisted Therapy

Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) is a therapeutic approach that incorporates animals, such as dogs, horses, and even dolphins, into the treatment process.

It is assumed that the presence of animals can provide physical, emotional, and social benefits to people, especially those dealing with various psychological, cognitive, and behavioral issues.

AAT is designed to enhance the human-animal bond and improve the well-being of people with a wide range of conditions.

AAT covers a broad spectrum of interventions, from providing emotional support to individuals with mental health disorders to aiding physical rehabilitation for those with physical disabilities.

It is conducted by trained professionals, such as therapists, healthcare providers, or qualified handlers, who carefully match the animal to the individual’s needs.

Animal Assisted Activities (AAA) and Animal Assisted Therapies (AAT).

Animal therapy can be divided into two main categories: animal assisted activities (AAA) and animal assisted therapies (AAT).

Animal Assisted Activities (AAA)Animal Assisted Therapies (AAT)
Involves interactions with animals for the purpose of recreation, motivation, or education.Consists of more structured and goal-oriented activities aimed at improving specific aspects of an individual’s functioning.

Benefits of Animal Assisted Therapy

There are several benefits associated with AAT, including:

Stress ReductionInteracting with animals can lower cortisol levels and increase oxytocin, promoting relaxation and stress relief.
SocializationAnimals can act as a social catalyst, encouraging interaction among individuals, especially socially isolated individuals.
Enhanced MoodAnimal presence can increase the release of endorphins, improving mood and overall mental health.
Physical RehabilitationAnimals can support patients in physiotherapy, providing encouragement and motivation.

However, it is important to consider ethical implications when incorporating animals into therapy programs, as their welfare must be protected.

Care should be taken to ensure that the animals are treated with respect and not subjected to unnecessary stress or harm during the therapy process.

Types of Animal Assisted Therapy

Animal Assisted Therapy

The innate connection between humans and animals transcends words, creating a bridge of comfort, empathy, and healing.

Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) harnesses this bond to offer unique pathways to emotional well-being and personal growth.

In this exploration of types of animal-assisted therapy, we embark on a journey to understand how the presence and interaction with animals can facilitate therapeutic breakthroughs.

Dogs in Therapy

Dogs are one of the most common animals used in animal assisted therapy.

They are known for their ability to provide emotional support, companionship, and help in reducing stress and anxiety.

Therapy dogs work in various settings, such as hospitals, schools, and mental health facilities.

They can improve mood, encourage socialization, and even assist in physical therapy sessions.

Horses in Equine Therapy

Equine therapy, also known as horse-assisted therapy, is a type of animal therapy that involves working with horses in a therapeutic setting.

It can be beneficial for individuals with a wide range of physical, emotional, and behavioral challenges.

In equine therapy, participants may engage in activities such as grooming, feeding, and riding, which can help improve their motor skills, self-esteem, and emotional well-being.

Horses are known for their gentle and intuitive nature, enabling nonverbal communication and connection with therapy participants.

Cats in Therapy

Cats can also play a role in animal assisted therapy, providing comfort and companionship to individuals in need.

They are particularly well-suited for therapy in long-term care facilities or hospice settings, where residents may benefit from the calming presence of a cat.

Cats can help reduce loneliness, anxiety, and stress while promoting relaxation and bonding with the therapy recipient.

Guinea Pigs in Therapy

Animal Assisted Therapy

Guinea pigs are small, low-maintenance animals that can be used in therapeutic settings, especially for children.

They are often employed in school or pediatric therapy programs to help children learn responsibility, empathy, and communication skills.

Guinea pigs offer a non-threatening and gentle presence that can help ease anxiety and increase confidence.

Rabbits in Therapy

Rabbits are another type of small animal that can be used in therapy sessions.

They are known for their calm and gentle nature, which can be comforting to individuals experiencing stress or anxiety.

Therapy rabbits can be particularly helpful for children with special needs, as their soft fur and gentle presence can provide a sense of security and comfort.

Pigs in Therapy

Pigs, specifically miniature pigs, have gained popularity in recent years as therapy animals.

They are intelligent, social, and trainable, making them suitable for various therapeutic settings.

Pigs can provide emotional support, companionship, and even assist in physical therapy sessions, helping individuals with mobility and balance challenges.

Their unique characteristics and friendly disposition can create a sense of novelty and engagement in the therapy process.

The Process of Animal Assisted Therapy

Animal Assisted Therapy

The process of Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) goes beyond traditional therapeutic methods.

It taps into the innate connection between humans and animals to unlock emotions, build trust, and foster emotional resilience.

Animal Selection

The first step in animal-assisted therapy is selecting the appropriate therapy animal.

Common choices include dogs, cats, and horses. These animals are chosen for their unique abilities to interact positively with patients and provide a therapeutic context for treatment.

It is essential that the animals have a calm temperamentgood socialization skills, and can adapt to a variety of environments.

Training and Certification

Before participating in therapy, both the animals and their handlers undergo training and certification processes.

This ensures that the therapy animals are well-behaved, predictable, and capable of providing effective therapeutic support. 

Handlers learn how to work with their animal partners, ensure their safety and well-being, and manage the therapeutic relationship between the patient and the therapy animal.

Several organizations offer specialized training programs to prepare therapy animals and their handlers for their important roles in providing therapeutic services.

Implementing Therapy

Once the therapy animals and their handlers undergo the necessary training and certification, they are ready to start working in animal-assisted therapy sessions.

The therapy animal is integrated into the treatment process as a supportive and goal-directed partner in the patient’s healing journey.

The handler plays a crucial role in facilitating a positive and therapeutic interaction between the patient and the therapy animal.

In many cases, animal-assisted therapy sessions can lead to significant improvements in patients’ mental and emotional well-being, providing a complementary approach to traditional therapy methods.

Therapeutic Impact and Health Benefits

Animal Assisted Therapy

The unspoken bond between humans and animals transcends the barriers of language and logic, offering a source of comfort, companionship, and profound healing.

Within this remarkable connection lies the foundation of Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT), a therapeutic approach that harnesses the innate power of animals to foster emotional well-being and health benefits.

In this exploration of the therapeutic impact and health benefits of animal-assisted therapy, we will understand how the presence and interaction with animals can create transformative outcomes for individuals facing various challenges.

On Mental Health

Animal-assisted therapy has shown positive effects on mental health.

It has been reported that interaction with therapy animals can help in reducing stress, anxiety, and depression levels.

For instance, a study on animal-assisted therapy with dolphins found significant improvement in treating depression.

This occurs because contact with animals can release neurotransmitters such as serotonin and endorphins, promoting a sense of comfort and happiness.

Moreover, therapy animals are also found to be beneficial for individuals who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

By providing a calming presence, these animals can help alleviate triggers and manage PTSD symptoms.

Overall, incorporating animals in therapy settings has shown promising results in enhancing mental well-being.

On Physical Health

Animal-assisted therapy can also improve physical health. As individuals engage with therapy animals, they may experience reduced pain and discomfort from disease or injury.

This is partly because engaging with animals can release oxytocin, a hormone known to reduce cortisol levels.

Lowered cortisol, a stress hormone, can have positive effects on physical health, including reduced inflammation and improved immune system functioning.

In addition, therapy animals are known to encourage physical activity and strength development.

For example, patients rehabilitating from surgery may be more motivated to undertake physical tasks while interacting with animals.

These interactions can help to improve physical health by promoting healing and functional capabilities.

On Social Skills

Interacting with therapy animals has been found to facilitate improvements in social interactions.

As individuals engage with animals, they can develop emotional connections and increased social support.

Furthermore, therapy animals can act as a catalyst for social interaction among patients or clients in a therapeutic environment, encouraging them to communicate with one another and share their experiences.

Enhanced social skills can contribute to overall well-being, as they help individuals build relationships, manage emotions effectively, and deal with challenges.

Involvement in animal-assisted therapy can play a crucial role in boosting social functioning for individuals struggling with various issues such as autism, social anxiety, and developmental disorders.

Therapy Applications

Animal Assisted Therapy

Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT) encompasses a diverse range of applications that harness the presence and interaction of animals to achieve therapeutic goals.

As we delve into the world of therapy applications of animal-assisted therapy, we aim to shed light on the versatile impact this approach can have across various therapeutic contexts.

In Hospitals

In hospitals, animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has been utilized to provide comfort and emotional support to patients.

Specially trained animals like dogs interact with patients to help reduce anxiety, pain, and depression.

These interactions have been shown to provide physiological benefits, including decreased blood pressure and heart rate.

In Schools

AAT has been incorporated into special education settings and for children with autism spectrum disorder.

Therapy animals can help students improve social skills, foster emotional regulation, and provide sensory support. 

Schools have reported increased focus and engagement in classroom tasks when therapy animals are present.

In Long-Term Care Facilities

Long-term care facilities are increasingly using AAT to improve residents’ quality of life.

Therapy animals provide companionship, boost morale, and aid in emotional well-being for individuals experiencing loneliness or cognitive decline.

Engagement with therapy animals can also stimulate physical activity and encourage social interactions among residents.

In Cancer Treatment

Cancer patients may benefit from AAT during treatment and recovery.

Interacting with therapy animals can alleviate stressanxietyand depression associated with cancer treatments.

Some studies suggest that AAT may promote faster recovery and improve adherence to treatment regimens.

Equine-Assisted Therapy for PTSD

Equine-assisted therapy is a specific form of AAT that utilizes horses to assist individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), particularly veterans returning from combat.

This form of therapy helps sufferers build trust, practice mindfulness, and develop new coping strategies.

Equine-assisted therapy has been shown to improve emotional regulation and decrease PTSD symptoms.

In Rehabilitation

AAT has been employed in various rehabilitation settings, including physicaloccupational, and speech therapy.

Interaction with therapy animals can motivate patients to engage in therapeutic exercises, build strength and mobility, and develop communication skills.

The presence of therapy animals has been shown to enhance patients’ motivation and overall therapeutic outcomes.

Animal-assisted Therapy for Addiction Treatment

Individuals struggling with addiction may also benefit from AAT as part of their recovery process.

Therapy animals can offer emotional support, stress relief, and a sense of nonjudgmental companionship.

As a result, AAT has been incorporated into many addiction treatment programs, promoting healthier coping mechanisms and aiding in the reduction of anxiety and depression.

Challenges and Considerations in Animal Assisted Therapy

Animal Assisted Therapy

Animal assisted therapy (AAT) has been proven to be effective in helping various individuals with different needs.

However, there are certain challenges and considerations that must be taken into account when implementing this therapeutic approach.


One significant challenge in AAT is ensuring the safety of both the patients and the animals involved in the therapy sessions.

Proper training of animals is essential to minimize the risk of harm to patients while also ensuring the welfare of the animals.

Handlers must also be adept in managing the animal and its behavior during therapy sessions, which could be better achieved with appropriate training and certifications.


Allergy concerns are another aspect that cannot be overlooked.

Patients with allergies to specific animals or their dander may experience allergic reactions during therapy sessions.

It is crucial to be aware of these potential allergies and plan accordingly while also seeking alternative AAT options that may involve hypoallergenic animals.


Fear is also a significant factor that needs to be considered. Patients might have pre-existing fears or phobias related to certain animals.

Therapists should be aware of these potential fears and assess each patient accordingly to provide the most effective and comfortable AAT experience.


Insurance can be another challenge in AAT, as not all insurance plans cover animal assisted therapy costs.

Consequently, this may limit accessibility for potential patients who could greatly benefit from AAT.

Therapists and patients must be knowledgeable about insurance coverage options and possible financial assistance programs.

The Role of the Human in Animal Assisted Therapy

Animal Assisted Therapy

Animal assisted therapy (AAT) has become an increasingly popular treatment method to improve the physical, emotional, and social well-being of individuals with various health conditions.

In this therapy, the human plays a vital role as the handler, guiding and managing the interactions between the therapy animal and the individual undergoing treatment.

Handlers are trained professionals who have an in-depth understanding of both animal behavior and the needs of their clients.

They work closely with medical professionals to develop AAT treatment plans specific to the individual’s health conditions, incorporating suitable goals and objectives.

Some common medical conditions that may benefit from AAT include autism, dementia, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

During AAT sessions, the handler is responsible for maintaining a safe, supportive, and structured environment for the client and animal to interact.

This includes overseeing the client’s engagement in activities with the therapy animal, such as movement-based exercises or relaxation techniques.

The handler also closely monitors the animal’s well-being and ensures it remains calm and focused during interactions.

Through their knowledge and expertise, handlers ensure the needs of both the therapy animal and the individual receiving treatment are met, creating an environment that fosters healing and overall well-being.

Final Thoughts

Animal-assisted therapy has demonstrated its potential to improve patients’ emotional and physical well-being, especially in pediatric populations.

Despite some promising results, additional investigations are required to better understand the role that animals play in these therapeutic contexts and to ascertain the method’s overall effectiveness.

Researchers must continue exploring this topic in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of AAT and how it may be optimally used as a complementary intervention in various healthcare settings.

Frequently Asked Questions

Which animals are commonly used in animal assisted therapy?

A variety of animals can be used in animal-assisted therapy, but the most common ones are dogs and horses.

Other animals that are used include cats, birds, rabbits, and even dolphins. These animals are chosen for their ability to bond with humans and provide therapeutic benefits.

What are the proven benefits of animal assisted therapy?

Animal-assisted therapy has been shown to have numerous benefits for individuals struggling with various physical, mental, and emotional issues.

Some proven benefits include:

  • Reduced anxiety and stress
  • Improved mood and mental well-being
  • Increased motivation and engagement in therapy sessions
  • Enhanced social skills and communication abilities
  • Improved self-esteem and confidence
  • Decreased feelings of loneliness and isolation

How is animal assisted therapy integrated into various treatment plans?

Animal-assisted therapy can complement a wide range of treatment modalities and is often customized to suit the individual’s needs.

It can be integrated into individual, group, or family therapy sessions and is typically guided by a qualified therapist or animal-assisted therapy professional.

Treatment plans may focus on various goals, such as improving social skills, managing stress, or building self-esteem.

The therapy sessions may involve structured activities or simply interacting with the animal under the guidance of a professional.

What is the difference between pet therapy and animal assisted therapy?

Pet therapy typically refers to a more informal form of interaction with animals, often involving visits from a trained therapy animal to places like hospitals, nursing homes, or schools.

The primary goal is to provide comfort, companionship, and emotional support.

On the other hand, animal assisted therapy is a more structured and goal-oriented intervention, often guided by a therapist or a trained professional.

The focus is on achieving specific therapeutic outcomes, and the therapy sessions are tailored to the individual’s needs and treatment goals.

Are there any notable organizations dedicated to animal assisted therapy?

There are several organizations dedicated to promoting and providing animal-assisted therapy.

Some notable ones include:

Additional Resources

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About the author

Eliana Galindo
Eliana is a dedicated psychologist from Colombia who has gained extensive experience and made significant contributions in child development, clinical psychology, and rehabilitation psychology.Her work as a rehabilitation psychologist with disabled children has been transformative and compassionate. In the child development field, she creates nurturing environments through assessments, interventions, and collaboration with families.In clinical psychology, she supports individuals overcoming mental health challenges with empathy and evidence-based approaches. Inspired by her experiences, Eliana is motivated to write about mental health, aiming to raise awareness and advocate for a compassionate and inclusive approach to well-being.

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