Separation Anxiety ↓
Separation anxiety refers to a developmental stage in which a child experiences anxiety due to separation from the primary care giver (usually the mother). This phase is fairly standard at around 8 months of age and can last until the child is 14 months old.
Family Dynamics ↓
Birth Order, Siblings
Can we all get along? That's a tall order when your limelight has been snatched away by your adorable new little brother. Family: You love them and you hate them. There are so many things to consider when you think of family: there's birth order, rivalries, and the only child, to name a few.
Child Neglect ↓
Child neglect is defined as a type of maltreatment related to the failure to provide needed, age-appropriate care. Unlike physical and sexual abuse, neglect is usually typified by an ongoing pattern of inadequate care and is readily observed by individuals in close contact with the child. Once children are in school, personnel often notice indicators of child neglect such as poor hygiene, poor weight gain, inadequate medical care, or frequent absences from school. Professionals have defined four types of neglect: physical, emotional, educational, and medical.
Pedophilia is considered a paraphilia, an "abnormal or unnatural attraction." Pedophilia is defined as the fantasy or act of sexual activity with prepubescent children.
Encopresis is usually an involuntary passage of feces (stools) by a child age four or more in inappropriate places such as clothing. It is frequently the result of chronic constipation, which over time results in fecal impaction and in the leakage of liquid stool accumulated above the impacted feces. This leakage may occur during the day or night and it is not under the conscious control of the child. Leakage varies in frequency; it can range from infrequent occurrences to almost a continuous flow.
Encopresis is categorized according to the subtype that characterizes the presentation—primary is with constipation and overflow incontinence; secondary is without constipation and overflow incontinence. The primary subtype has evidence of constipation on physical examination or a history of a bowel movement frequency of fewer than three per week. Feces in overflow incontinence are characteristically poorly formed, and leakage occurs mostly during the day and rarely during sleep. Only part of the feces is passed during toileting, and the incontinence resolves after treatment of the constipation. The secondary subtype has no evidence of constipation on physical examination or by history. Feces are likely to be of normal form and consistency, and soiling is intermittent. Feces may be deposited in a prominent location. This is usually associated with the oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder.
Also, a child with encopresis often feels ashamed and may wish to avoid situations (such as camp or school) that might lead to embarrassment. The amount of impairment is a function of the effect on the child's self-esteem, the degree of social ostracism by peers, and the anger, punishment, and rejection on the part of caregivers.
Enuresis is the involuntary discharge of urine by a child age 5 and over. It can be psychologically distressful and a source of embarrassment for a child, but not physically harmful. Enuresis places a child at risk of being a target for name-calling and teasing from peers, behavior that can damage a child's self esteem and place him or her at risk of rejection. The presence of enuresis can place a limit on participation in highly desirable social experiences such as sleepovers and summer camp. The child may also have to face anger and humiliation from parents who do not understand the nature of this disorder. Enuresis can be nocturnal-only or diurnal-only. Nocturnal enuresis is the most common form and is defined as passage of urine only during nighttime sleep. Diurnal enuresis, the voiding of urine only during waking hours, is more common in females than in males and is uncommon after age 9. Children being so preoccupied with a particular event that they are reluctant to use the toilet may cause it. A combination of nocturnal and diurnal enuresis can occur but it is extremely rare. Primary enuresis refers to a condition whereby the child has not established at least 6 months of continuous nighttime control after reaching age 5. Secondary enuresis, whereby children establish urinary continence and relapse after age 5 or 6 is less common, and is associated with more stressful life events.Roughly 20% of children still wet their beds at age 5, only 5% do so by age 10, and 2% by age 15. Only 1 out of 100 children who wet their bed continues to have a problem in adulthood.