The person doesn't have to directly experience the event, though this is often the case.  He or she can also witness the event, learn of the trauma that occurred to a family member or a close friend, or witness other unpleasant elements of the event ( such as blood, dead bodies or hearing intimate details surrounding abuse).

PTSD has many different symptoms and can manifest in a nmber of different ways.  People can have different experiences.  Some may have more fearful re-experiencing symptoms, while others may struggle more with depressive moods, negative thinking, or social relationships.


  • Psychological distress when exposed to cues that relte to the event.
  • Significant physical respoonses to cues that relate to the event.
  • Dissociative reactions or flashbacks in which the person relives the event.
  • Repeated dreams about the trauma.
  • Persistent and involuntary dreadful memories of the event.
  • Avoidance of externa. factors that remind the person of the traumatic event and cause terrifying thoughts, feelings or memories.
  • Avoidance of painful memories, thoughts or feelings associated with the trauma.
  • Amnesia surrounding components of the event.
  • Distorted thinking that leads to blaming oneself for the event.
  • Lack of interest in hobbies or activities
  • Feeling estranged or detached from other people.
  • Unable to feel postive emotions.
  • Self-destructive behaviors.
  • Sleep Problems
  • Concentration difficulties.

These symptoms are called Intrusion, Avoidance and Reactive.